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Make vs do

В каких словосочетаниях  следует употреблять глагол do, а в каких  make ? В чем  разница между этими глаголами?

Мы используем do, когда говорим о действиях, обязательствах, или повторяющихся задачах

Мы используем make, когда говорим о создании или производстве чего-то, а также о действиях, которые Вы выполняете по желанию.

Do, как правило, относится к самому действию,  а make к результату действия.

Так, мы говорим to do morning exercises (делать зарядку),  но to make breakfast (готовить завтрак).




to do the housework (делать работу по дому)

When I get home after work I'm usually too tired to do the housework.

to do/wash the dishes (мыть посуду)

If you make dinner I'll do the dishes afterwards.

to do the  laundry (стирать)

We really need to do the laundry, we haven't got any clean clothes left.

to do the shopping (ходить за покупками)

I usually do the shopping in a supermarket twice a month.

Исключение: to make the bed (застилать кровать)



to do work (работать, выполнять работу)

I can't go skiing with you this weekend, I have to do some work on my project.

to do business (вести дела)

This report describes how we do business.

to do a good/great/terrible job (хорошо/отлично/плохо справиться с каким-то делом или заданием)

They did a great job organizing the conference.

to  do homework (делать домашнее задание)

You can’t play any computer games  until you’ve done your homework.

to do/take a course (изучать курс)

He's doing a course at the local college.

to do/write a report (делать доклад)

I'm doing a report on the history of Ancient Egypt.



to  do anything / something / everything / nothing (делать что-то, все, ничего)

Are you doing anything special this weekend?

to do good  (приносить пользу, делать что-то хорошее)

This charity organization has done a lot of good in our community.

to do well/badly (хорошо/плохо справляться с заданием, работой, и так далее)

I did pretty well  in math this year.
I did badly on my Spanish exam.

to do one's  best (cделать все от себя зависящее, приложить максимум усилий)

I'll do my best to meet your expectations.



to  do exercise  (делать упражнения)

I aim to do at least 20 minutes of exercise every day.

to do/style  one's  hair (укладывать волосы)

Every morning I do my hair so it looks presentable.

to do/paint  one's nails (красить ногти)

I did my nails three times yesterday. And I still don't really like what I wound up with.




to make progress (делать успехи, добиваться результатов)

I've made good progress in Spanish this year.

to make plans (планировать, строить планы)

Have you made any plans for New Year's Eve yet?

to make a decision (принять решение)

I have to make some very difficult decisions.

to make a choice (сделать выбор)

In the past women had to make a choice between a career or marriage.

to  make a mistake (совершить ошибку)

I made a lot of mistakes in my written test. I'll have to take it again in 2 weeks.

to make an attempt / effort (сделать попытку)

She made an effort at cleaning her room, but it wasn't very clean afterwards.

to make a discovery (сделать открытие)

Professor Henry, of Princeton, it is known, has made some important discoveries in electro-magnetism.

to make a difference (иметь значение, положительно влиять)

My grandma says her new  house is very warm and this has made a big difference to her health issues.

to make an exception (сделать исключение)

They don't usually take credit cards, but they made an exception for me.



to make friends (подружиться)

Joining a local sports team is  a great way to make new friends.

to  make fun of someone (насмехаться над кем-то)

The other kids at school used to make fun of his hair.

to make a phone call (позвонить)

Will you excuse me? I need to make a phone call.

to make a comment (прокомментировать, высказать замечание)

She made negative comments to the press.

to make an observation (сделать замечание)

He made a few interesting observations that have stuck with me.

to make a joke (пошутить)

He tried to make a joke of the fact that he hadn't passed the test.

to make a complaint (пожаловаться)

Shortly after the incident, we made a complaint with the police, but nothing has come out of the investigation.

to make a confession (сделать признание, признаться)

I have a confession to make.

to make a speech (произнести речь)

He made a speech that lasted about two hours.

to make a suggestion (высказать предложение)

Can you  make any suggestions for improvements?

to make a prediction (сделать прогноз, предсказание)

I wouldn't like to make any predictions about the result of this match.

to make a promise (пообещать)

She made a promise to write to me every week.

to make a bet (заключить пари)

We made a bet on the outcome of the game.

to  make a point (отметить, высказать соображение)

Tim made some good points during the conference, I think we should discuss his ideas.

to make an excuse (оправдаться, найти отговорку)

Stop making excuses and just do things.

to  make a fuss (суетиться, поднимать шум)

They were making a big fuss over nothing.



to make breakfast/lunch/dinner (готовить завтрак/обед/ужин)

If you want I'll make breakfast for you before I leave for work.

to make a sandwich, a salad, etc  (сделать бутерброд, салат, и так далее)

You can make a vegetable salad from raw vegetables or cooked ones.

Could you make me a cup of tea?

to make a reservation (заказать столик)

I've made a reservation for 9.30 at your favorite restaurant.



to make money (зарабатывать деньги)

I wish I could make more money for my family.

to make a profit/a loss (получать прибыль/терпеть убытки)

If the business's income is more than its costs, the business has made a profit. If the business's costs are more than its income, the business has made a loss.

to  make a fortune (разбогатеть, сколотить состояние)

She made a fortune selling her story to the newspapers.

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